20761: Querying Data with Transact-SQL

This course is designed to introduce students to Transact-SQL. It is designed in such a way that the first three days can be taught as a course to students requiring the knowledge for other courses in the SQL Server curriculum. Days 4 & 5 teach the remaining skills required to take exam 70-761.

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Description

What you will Learn
After completing this course, students will be able to:

Describe key capabilities and components of SQL Server 2016.
Describe T-SQL, sets, and predicate logic.
Write a single table SELECT statement.
Write a multi-table SELECT statement.
Write SELECT statements with filtering and sorting.
Describe how SQL Server uses data types.
Write DML statements.
Write queries that use built-in functions.
Write queries that aggregate data.
Write subqueries.
Create and implement views and table-valued functions.
Use set operators to combine query results.
Write queries that use window ranking, offset, and aggregate functions.
Transform data by implementing pivot, unpivot, rollup and cube.
Create and implement stored procedures.
Add programming constructs such as variables, conditions, and loops to T-SQL code.
Audience
The main purpose of the course is to give students a good understanding of the Transact-SQL language which is used by all SQL Server-related disciplines; namely, Database Administration, Database Development and Business Intelligence. As such, the primary target audience for this course is: Database Administrators, Database Developers and BI professionals.

Prerequisites
Basic knowledge of the Microsoft Windows operating system and its core functionality.

Working knowledge of relational databases.

Duration
5 Days

Outline of Querying Data with Transact-SQL Training
Module 1: Introduction to Microsoft SQL Server 2016
This module introduces SQL Server, the versions of SQL Server, including cloud versions, and how to connect to SQL Server using SQL Server Management Studio.

Lessons

The Basic Architecture of SQL Server
SQL Server Editions and Versions
Getting Started with SQL Server Management Studio
Lab : Working with SQL Server 2016 Tools
Working with SQL Server Management Studio
Creating and Organizing T-SQL Scripts
Using Books Online
After completing this module, you will be able to:

Describe relational databases and Transact-SQL queries.
Describe the on-premise and cloud-based editions and versions of SQL Server.
Describe how to use SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS) to connect to an instance of SQL Server, explore the databases contained in the instance, and work with script files that contain T-SQL queries.
Module 2: Introduction to T-SQL Querying
This module describes the elements of T-SQL and their role in writing queries. Describe the use of sets in SQL Server. Describe the use of predicate logic in SQL Server. Describe the logical order of operations in SELECT statements.

Lessons

Introducing T-SQL
Understanding Sets
Understanding Predicate Logic
Understanding the Logical Order of Operations in SELECT statements
Lab : Introduction to T-SQL Querying

Executing Basic SELECT Statements
Executing Queries that Filter Data using Predicates
Executing Queries That Sort Data Using ORDER BY
After completing this module, you will be able to:

Describe the role of T-SQL in writing SELECT statements.
Describe the elements of the T-SQL language and which elements will be useful in writing queries.
Describe the concepts of the set theory, one of the mathematical underpinnings of relational databases, and to help you apply it to how you think about querying SQL Server
Describe predicate logic and examine its application to querying SQL Server.
Explain the elements of a SELECT statement, delineate the order in which the elements are evaluated, and then apply this understanding to a practical approach to writing queries.
Module 3: Writing SELECT Queries
This module introduces the fundamentals of the SELECT statement, focusing on queries against a single table.

Lessons

Writing Simple SELECT Statements
Eliminating Duplicates with DISTINCT
Using Column and Table Aliases
Writing Simple CASE Expressions
Lab : Writing Basic SELECT Statements

Writing Simple SELECT Statements
Eliminating Duplicates Using DISTINCT
Using Column and Table Aliases
Using a Simple CASE Expression
After completing this module, you will be able to:

Describe the structure and format of the SELECT statement, as well as enhancements that will add functionality and readability to your queries
Describe how to eliminate duplicates using the DISTINCT clause
Describe the use of column and table aliases
Understand and use CASE expressions
Module 4: Querying Multiple Tables
This module describes how to write queries that combine data from multiple sources in Microsoft SQL Server 2016.

Lessons

Understanding Joins
Querying with Inner Joins
Querying with Outer Joins
Querying with Cross Joins and Self Joins
Lab : Querying Multiple Tables

Writing Queries that use Inner Joins
Writing Queries that use Multiple-Table Inner Joins
Writing Queries that use Self-Joins
Writing Queries that use Outer Joins
Writing Queries that use Cross Joins
After completing this module, you will be able to:

Explain the fundamentals of joins in SQL Server 2016
Write inner join queries
Write queries that use outer joins
Use additional join types
Module 5: Sorting and Filtering Data
This module describes how to implement sorting and filtering.

Lessons

Sorting Data
Filtering Data with Predicates
Filtering Data with TOP and OFFSET-FETCH
Working with Unknown Values
Lab : Sorting and Filtering Data

Writing Queries that Filter Data using a WHERE Clause
Writing Queries that Sort Data Using an ORDER BY Clause
Writing Queries that Filter Data Using the TOP Option
After completing this module, you will be able to:

Explain how to add an ORDER BY clause to your queries to control the order of rows displayed in your query’s output
Explain how to construct WHERE clauses to filter out rows that do not match the predicate.
Explain how to limit ranges of rows in the SELECT clause using a TOP option.
Explain how to limit ranges of rows using the OFFSET-FETCH option of an ORDER BY clause.
Explain how three-valued logic accounts for unknown and missing values, how SQL Server uses NULL to mark missing values, and how to test for NULL in your queries.
Module 6: Working with SQL Server 2016 Data Types
This module introduces the data types SQL Server uses to store data.

Lessons

Introducing SQL Server 2016 Data Types
Working with Character Data
Working with Date and Time Data
Lab : Working with SQL Server 2016 Data Types

Writing Queries that Return Date and Time Data
Writing Queries that use Date and Time Functions
Writing Queries That Return Character Data
Writing Queries That Return Character Functions
After completing this module, you will be able to:

Explore many of the data types SQL Server uses to store data and how data types are converted between types
Explain the SQL Server character-based data types, how character comparisons work, and some common functions you may find useful in your queries
Describe data types that are used to store temporal data, how to enter dates and times so they will be properly parsed by SQL Server, and how to manipulate dates and times with built-in functions.
Module 7: Using DML to Modify Data
This module describes how to create DML queries, and why you would want to.

Lessons

Inserting Data
Modifying and Deleting Data
Lab : Using DML to Modify Data

Inserting Data
Updating and Deleting Data
After completing this module, you will be able to:

Use INSERT and SELECT INTO statements
Use UPDATE, MERGE, DELETE, and TRUNCATE.
Module 8: Using Built-In Functions
This module introduces some of the many built in functions in SQL Server 2016.

Lessons

Writing Queries with Built-In Functions
Using Conversion Functions
Using Logical Functions
Using Functions to Work with NULL
Lab : Using Built-In Functions

Writing Queries That Use Conversion Functions
Writing Queries that use Logical Functions
Writing Queries that Test for Nullability
After completing this module, you will be able to:

Describe the types of functions provided by SQL Server, and then focus on working with scalar functions
Explain how to explicitly convert data between types using several SQL Server functions
Describe how to use logical functions that evaluate an expression and return a scalar result.
Describe additional functions for working with NULL
Module 9: Grouping and Aggregating Data
This module describes how to use aggregate functions.

Lessons

Using Aggregate Functions
Using the GROUP BY Clause
Filtering Groups with HAVING
Lab : Grouping and Aggregating Data

Writing Queries That Use the GROUP BY Clause
Writing Queries that Use Aggregate Functions
Writing Queries that Use Distinct Aggregate Functions
Writing Queries that Filter Groups with the HAVING Clause
After completing this module, you will be able to:

Describe the built-in aggregate function in SQL Server and write queries using it.
Write queries that separate rows using the GROUP BY clause.
Write queries that use the HAVING clause to filter groups.
Module 10: Using Subqueries
This module describes several types of subquery and how and when to use them.

Lessons

Writing Self-Contained Subqueries
Writing Correlated Subqueries
Using the EXISTS Predicate with Subqueries
Lab : Using Subqueries

Writing Queries That Use Self-Contained Subqueries
Writing Queries That Use Scalar and Multi-Result Subqueries
Writing Queries That Use Correlated Subqueries and an EXISTS Clause
After completing this module, you will be able to:

Describe where subqueries may be used in a SELECT statement.
Write queries that use correlated subqueries in a SELECT statement
Write queries that use EXISTS predicates in a WHERE clause to test for the existence of qualifying rows
Use the EXISTS predicate to efficiently check for the existence of rows in a subquery.
Module 11: Using Table Expressions
Previously in this course, you learned about using subqueries as an expression that returned results to an outer calling query. Like subqueries, table expressions are query expressions, but table expressions extend this idea by allowing you to name them and to work with their results as you would work with data in any valid relational table. Microsoft SQL Server 2016 supports four types of table expressions: derived tables, common table expression (CTEs), views, and inline table-valued functions (TVFs). In this module, you will learn to work with these forms of table expressions and learn how to use them to help create a modular approach to writing queries.

Lessons

Using Views
Using Inline Table-Valued Functions
Using Derived Tables
Using Common Table Expressions
Lab : Using Table Expressions

Writing Queries That Use Views
Writing Queries That Use Derived Tables
Writing Queries That Use Common Table Expressions (CTEs)
Writing Queries That Sue Inline Table-Valued Expressions
After completing this module, you will be able to:

Write queries that return results from views.
Use the CREATE FUNCTION statement to create simple inline TVFs.
Write queries that create and retrieve results from derived tables.
Write queries that create CTEs and return results from the table expression.
Module 12: Using Set Operators
This module introduces how to use the set operators UNION, INTERSECT, and EXCEPT to compare rows between two input sets.

Lessons

Writing Queries with the UNION operator
Using EXCEPT and INTERSECT
Using APPLY
Lab : Using Set Operators

Writing Queries That Use UNION Set Operators and UNION ALL
Writing Queries That Use CROSS APPLY and OUTER APPLY Operators
Writing Queries That Use the EXCEPT and INTERSECT Operators
After completing this module, students will be able to:

Write queries that use UNION to combine input sets.
Write queries that use UNION ALL to combine input sets
Write queries that use the EXCEPT operator to return only rows in one set but not another.
Write queries that use the INTERSECT operator to return only rows that are present in both sets
Write queries using the CROSS APPLY operator.
Write queries using the OUTER APPLY operator
Module 13: Using Windows Ranking, Offset, and Aggregate Functions
This module describes the benefits to using window functions. Restrict window functions to rows defined in an OVER clause, including partitions and frames. Write queries that use window functions to operate on a window of rows and return ranking, aggregation, and offset comparison results.

Lessons

Creating Windows with OVER
Exploring Window Functions
Lab : Using Windows Ranking, Offset, and Aggregate Functions

Writing Queries that use Ranking Functions
Writing Queries that use Offset Functions
Writing Queries that use Window Aggregate Functions
After completing this module, students will be able to:

Describe the T-SQL components used to define windows, and the relationships between them.
Write queries that use the OVER clause, with partitioning, ordering, and framing to define windows
Write queries that use window aggregate functions.
Write queries that use window ranking functions.
Write queries that use window offset functions
Module 14: Pivoting and Grouping Sets
This module describes write queries that pivot and unpivot result sets. Write queries that specify multiple groupings with grouping sets

Lessons

Writing Queries with PIVOT and UNPIVOT
Working with Grouping Sets
Lab : Pivoting and Grouping Sets

Writing Queries that use the PIVOT Operator
Writing Queries that use the UNPIVOT Operator
Writing Queries that use the GROUPING SETS CUBE and ROLLUP Subclauses
After completing this module, students will be able to:

Describe how pivoting data can be used in T-SQL queries.
Write queries that pivot data from rows to columns using the PIVOT operator.
Write queries that unpivot data from columns back to rows using the UNPIVOT operator.
Write queries using the GROUPING SETS subclause.
Write queries that use ROLLUP AND CUBE.
Write queries that use the GROUPING_ID function.
Module 15: Executing Stored Procedures
This module describes how to return results by executing stored procedures. Pass parameters to procedures. Create simple stored procedures that encapsulate a SELECT statement. Construct and execute dynamic SQL with EXEC and sp_executesql.

Lessons

Querying Data with Stored Procedures
Passing Parameters to Stored procedures
Creating Simple Stored Procedures
Working with Dynamic SQL
Lab : Executing Stored Procedures

Using the EXECUTE statement to Invoke Stored Procedures
Passing Parameters to Stored procedures
Executing System Stored Procedures
After completing this module, students will be able to:

Describe stored procedures and their use.
Write T-SQL statements that execute stored procedures to return data.
Write EXECUTE statements that pass input parameters to stored procedures.
Write T-SQL batches that prepare output parameters and execute stored procedures.
Use the CREATE PROCEDURE statement to write a stored procedure.
Create a stored procedure that accepts input parameters.
Describe how T-SQL can be dynamically constructed.
Write queries that use dynamic SQL.
Module 16: Programming with T-SQL
This module describes how to enhance your T-SQL code with programming elements.

Lessons

T-SQL Programming Elements
Controlling Program Flow
Lab : Programming with T-SQL

Declaring Variables and Delimiting Batches
Using Control-Of-Flow Elements
Using Variables in a Dynamic SQL Statement
Using Synonyms
After completing this module, students will be able to:

Describe how Microsoft SQL Server treats collections of statements as batches.
Create and submit batches of T-SQL code for execution by SQL Server.
Describe how SQL Server stores temporary objects as variables.
Write code that declares and assigns variables.
Create and invoke synonyms
Describe the control-of-flow elements in T-SQL.
Write T-SQL code using IF…ELSE blocks.
Write T-SQL code that uses WHILE.
Module 17: Implementing Error Handling
This module introduces error handling for T-SQL.

Lessons

Implementing T-SQL error handling
Implementing structured exception handling
Lab : Implementing Error Handling

Redirecting errors with TRY/CATCH
Using THROW to pass an error message back to a client
After completing this module, students will be able to:

Implement T-SQL error handling.
Implement structured exception handling.
Module 18: Implementing Transactions
This module describes how to implement transactions.

Lessons

Transactions and the database engines
Controlling transactions
Lab : Implementing Transactions

Controlling transactions with BEGIN, COMMIT, and ROLLBACK
Adding error handling to a CATCH block
After completing this module, students will be able to:

Describe transactions and the differences between batches and transactions.
Describe batches and how they are handled by SQL Server.
Create and manage transactions with transaction control language (TCL) statements.
Use SET XACT_ABORT to define SQL Servers handling of transactions outside TRY/CATCH blocks.